Click Here to Schedule a new Directed IRA account phone appointment with one of our experienced Self-Directed IRA Specialists.

PPP Is Back With $310 Billion in Additional Funding, But Small-Business Owners Must Act Fast

From my article on Entrepreneur 

On Tuesday, the Senate approved an additional $310B of funding for the popular Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loans for small-business owners, and the House is expected to approve the measure as soon as today.

The original bill passed passed on March 27 and established $349 billion in funding for PPP loans, but that money evaporated in just two weeks. Consequently, many business owners were left unfunded or were unable to find a bank that would even take their application. This additional $310 billion will go much more quickly than the first round, as the pipeline is full of those who applied and missed out initially, as well as others who have since located a bank willing to take their application.

Roth Conversions: When You Should Convert Your IRA or 401(k) to Roth?

Photo of a goldfish jumping from one fishbowl into another.Roth conversions are popular in 2020. Many Americans are taking advantage of low account values (asset values are low from stocks to real estate) and are converting Traditional dollars and assets to Roth. Others are seeing themselves in lower tax brackets than usual and see it as an opportune time to convert to Roth and pay taxes at a lower tax bracket. If you have a traditional IRA or 401(k), then that money grows tax-deferred, BUT you pay tax on the money as it is drawn out at retirement. And that’s a big BUT. On the other hand, you get zero tax deduction on Roth IRA and Roth 401(k) contributions but they grow and come out tax-free at retirement. What’s better? Well, in the end the Roth account is a much better deal as you’re pulling out what you put in AND the growth of the account after years of investing and saving. That’s likely a larger amount than what you put in so you’d typically be better paying tax on what you put in (or convert) rather than paying tax on the the larger sum that you will take out later. The trade-off of course, is you’re playing the long game. You’re skipping a tax deduction or paying tax now to convert in return for tax-free growth and tax-free distributions at retirement. The Roth seems to be the better deal. Yet, most Americans have been sucked into traditional IRAs and 401(k)s because we get a tax deduction when we put the money in a traditional account, saving us money on taxes now.

For more on the differences between Roth IRA and Roth 401(k), take a look at the video from my Partner Mark J. Kohler:

 

The good news is that you can convert your traditional IRA to a Roth IRA, or your traditional 401(k) to a Roth 401(k). The price to make that conversion is including the amount you convert to Roth as taxable income for the year in which you make the conversion. So, if I convert $100K from my traditional IRA to a Roth IRA in 2020, I will take that $100K as income on my 2020 tax return, then pay any federal and state taxes on that income depending on my 2020 tax bracket. Many retirement account owners want to move their traditional funds to Roth, but don’t like the idea of paying additional taxes to do so. It can be a big tax hit when you do your taxes. I get it. Nobody likes paying more taxes now, even if it clearly saves you more as your account grows and the entire growth comes out tax-free.

Chunking Conversions

One way to soften the tax blow of the Roth conversion is to chunk the amount you want to convert over two or more years. For example, if you are at the end of the year in November 2018 and you want to convert $100K to Roth, you may decide to convert $50K by December 31, 2020  to have that taxed in the current year and then convert the remaining $50k on January 1, 2021 to have that amount taxed in 2021. This way, you don’t have as much of an income swing and it spreads the tax due over the two years. You could also do $33K each year to spread it out of 3 years.

The following are three cut-and-dry situations of when you should definitely convert your traditional IRA or 401(k) funds to Roth:

1. Up-Side Investment Opportunity – I’ve had numerous clients over the years convert their traditional funds to Roth before investing their account into a certain investment. They’ve done this because they’ve had a tremendous investment opportunity arise where they expect significant returns. They’d rather pay the tax on the smaller investment amounts now, so that the returns will go back into their Roth IRA or 401(k), where it can grow to an unlimited amount and come out tax-free. These clients have invested in real estate deals, start-ups, pre-IPOs, and other potentially lucrative investments. So, if you have an investment that you really believe in and will likely result in significant returns, then you’re far better off paying a little tax on the amount being invested before the account grows and returns a large profit. That way, the profit goes back into the Roth and the money becomes tax-free.

2. Low-Income Year – Another situation where you should covert traditional funds to Roth is when you have a low-income tax-year. Since the pain of the conversion is that you have to pay tax on the amount that you convert, you should convert when you are in a lower tax bracket to lessen the blow. For example, if you are married and have $75K of taxable income for the year and you decide to convert $50K to Roth, you will pay federal tax on that converted amount at a rate of 15% which would result in $7,500 in federal taxes. Keep in mind that you also pay state tax on the amount that you convert (if your state has state income tax), and most states have stepped brackets where you pay tax at a lower rate when you have lower income. If you instead converted when you were in a high-income year, let’s say $250K of income, then you’d pay federal tax on a $50K conversion at a rate of 33% which would result in federal taxes of $16,500. That’s more than twice the taxes due when you are in a lower-income year. Now, you may not have taxable income fluctuations. But, for those who are self-employed, change jobs and have a loss of income, or have investment losses where taxable income is lower than normal for a year, you should think about converting your retirement funds to Roth. You may not have a more affordable time to make the Roth conversion.

3.Potential Need for a Distribution After Five Years – One of the perks of Roth accounts is that you can take out the funds that are contributed or converted after five years without paying tax or the early withdrawal penalty (even if you aren’t 59 1/2). For Roth conversions, the amount you convert can be distributed from the Roth account five years after the tax year in which you converted. The five-year clock starts to tick on January 1st of the tax year in which you convert, regardless of when you convert within the year. So, if you converted your traditional IRA to a Roth IRA in November 2020, then you could take a distribution of the amounts converted without paying tax or penalty on January 2nd, 2025. If you try to access funds in your traditional IRA or 401(k) before you are 59 1/2, then you will pay tax and a 10% early withdrawal penalty even if the amounts you distribute are only the contributions you put in, not the investment gains. Clearly, the Roth account is much more accessible in the event you need personal funds. Keep in mind, you don’t get this perk immediately: You have to wait 5 years from the tax year in which you converted before you can take out the converted amount tax and penalty free.

One final thought to consider when converting to a Roth is that there are no do-overs. You used to be able to do what was called a Roth re-characterization where you could undo a Roth conversion but the ability to undo a Roth conversion was eliminated in 2018 forward. As a result, make sure you’re committed before you convert as there are no mulligans, do-overs, or re-characterizations anymore. Also, if you want the conversion to fall onto your current year tax return, then make sure you convert those sums by December 31.

Mat has been at the forefront of the self-directed IRA industry since 2006. He is the CEO of Directed IRA & Directed Trust Company where they handle all types of self-directed accounts (IRAs, Roth IRAs, HSAs, Coverdell ESA, Solo Ks, and Custodial Accounts) which are typically invested into real estate, private company/private equity, IRA/LLCs, notes, precious metals, and cryptocurrency. Mat is also a partner at KKOS Lawyers and serves clients nationwide from its Phoenix, AZ office.

He is published regularly on retirement, tax, and business topics, and is a VIP Contributor at Entrepreneur.com. Mat is the best-selling author of the most widely used book in the self-directed IRA industry, The Self-Directed IRA Handbook: An Authoritative Guide for Self-Directed Retirement Plan Investors and Their Advisors.

$205 Billion of the $350 Billion Appropriated for PPP Loans Has Been Claimed

From my article on Entrepreneur.

The American Bankers Association reported on April 12 that $205 billion of the $350 billion appropriated for Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loans has been claimed. This number presumably represents applications that banks have processed and that have been approved through the Small Business Association (SBA). Keep in mind, approval by the SBA occurs before the loans are actually documented and funded.

While some small-business owners have received their PPP funds, the vast majority are still looking for a bank or are somewhere in their bank’s application or funding process. Frustrations are running high amongst small-business owners, but there is hope that the funding of these loans will increase significantly over the next week, as banks who started taking applications early are now moving on to the loan document and funding process. (For an overview of the PPP loan and how it can be forgiven, please refer to my prior article here.)

How to Submit Your SBA PPP Loan Application and Calculate the Loan Amount

From my article on Entrepreneur.

Many small-business owners are completing their Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loan applications and are running into common questions and roadblocks. The immediate question right now revolves around two issues: First, how do I work with my bank or find a bank to get it submitted? And second, how do I properly calculate the loan amount on the application? Read the article on Entrepreneur here.

How to Obtain an SBA Coronavirus PPP Loan and Have It Forgiven

From my article on Entrepreneur

The number-one pressure on small-business owners right now is payroll. Whether you’re a sole proprietor one-person-show or a company with 500 employees, you’ve certainly felt the pressure. Maybe you’ve already stopped paying yourself, have laid off workers or cut hours. Well, you can thank your federal government for the best aid program recently offered for small business, the Paycheck Protection Program loan (aka Coronavirus Stimulus Loan, or PPP Loan).

The PPP Loan was signed into law on March 27, 2020. On March 31, the SBA issued its guidance and sample application for the loan to be used by banks. Here’s a summary of the details you need to know. Read the article on Entrepreneur here.

2019 Tax Reporting for Your Self-Directed IRA

self directed ira taxSelf-Directed IRA investors must be aware of their self-directed IRA tax reporting responsibilities.  Some of these items are completed by your IRA custodian and others are the IRA owner’s sole responsibility. Here’s a quick summary of what should be reported to the IRS each year for your self-directed IRA. Make sure you know how these items are coordinated on your account as the ultimate authority and responsible tax person on the account is, you, the account owner.

IRA Custodian Files

Your IRA Custodian will file the following forms to the IRS annually. As a custodian of IRAs, Directed IRA & Directed Trust Company, we electronically file these with the IRS on every account. Different versions of these forms are completed for HSA and Coverdell/ESA accounts.

IRS FORM PURPOSE WHAT DOES IT REPORT
Form 5498 Filed to the IRS by your custodian. No taxes are due or paid as a result of Form 5498. IRA contributions, Roth conversions, the account’s fair market value as of 12/31 of the current year, and required minimum distributions taken.
Form 1099-R Filed to the IRS by your custodian to report any distributions or Roth conversions. The amounts distributed or converted are generally subject to tax and are claimed on your personal tax return. IRA distributions for the year, Roth IRA conversions, and also rollovers that are not direct IRA trustee-to-IRA trustee.

IRA Owner’s Responsibility

Depending on your self-directed IRA investments, you may be required to file the following tax return(s) with the IRS for your IRA’s investments/income:

IRS FORM DOES MY IRA NEED TO FILE THIS? DUE DATE
1065 Partnership Tax Return If your IRA is an owner in an LLC, LP, or other partnership, then the partnership should file a 1065 tax return for the company to the IRS, and should issue a K-1 to your IRA for its share of income or loss. Make sure the accountant preparing the company return knows to use your custodian’s tax ID for your IRA’s K-1s, and not your personal SSN (or your IRA’s tax ID if it has one for UBIT 990-T tax return purposes). If your IRA owns an LLC 100%, then it is disregarded for tax purposes (a single-member LLC), and the LLC does not need to file a tax return to the IRS. March 15th, 6-month extension available
990-T IRA Tax Return (UBIT) If your IRA incurs Unrelated Business Income Tax (UBIT), then it is required to file a tax return. The IRA files a tax return and any taxes due are paid from the IRA. Most self-directed IRAs don’t need to file a 990-T for their IRA, but you may be required to file for your IRA if your IRA obtained a non-recourse loan to buy a property (UDFI tax), or if your IRA participates in non-passive real estate investments such as: Construction, development, or on-going short-term flips. You may also have UBIT if your IRA has received income from an active trade or business, such as being a partner in an LLC that sells goods and services (C-Corp dividends exempt). Rental real estate income (no debt leverage), interest income, capital gain income, and dividend income are exempt from UBIT tax. April 15th, 6 -month extension available

Most Frequently Asked Questions

Below are my most frequently asked questions related to your IRA’s tax reporting responsibilities:

Q: My IRA is a member in an LLC with other investors. What should I tell the accountant preparing the tax return about reporting profit/loss for my IRA?

A: Let your accountant know that the IRA should receive the K-1 (e.g. ABC Trust Company FBO John Doe IRA) and that they should use the tax ID/EIN of your custodian and not your personal SSN. Contact your custodian to obtain their tax ID/EIN. Most custodians are familiar with this process, so it should be readily available. We are providing that number regularly to clients this time of year at Directed IRA & Directed Trust Company. If your IRA has a tax ID/EIN because you file a 990-T for Unrelated Business Income Tax then you can provide that tax ID/EIN.

Q: Why do I need to provide an annual valuation to my custodian for the LLC (or other company) my IRA owns?

A: Your IRA custodian must report your IRA’s fair market value as of the end of the year (12/31 of the current year) to the IRS on Form 5498, and in order to do this they must have an accurate record of the value of your IRA’s investments. If your IRA owns an LLC, they need to know the value of that LLC. For example, let’s say you have an IRA that owns an LLC 100% and that this LLC owns a rental property, and that it also has a bank account with some cash. If the value of the rental property at the end of the year was $150,000, and if the cash in the LLC bank account is $15,000, then the value of the LLC at the end of the year is $165,000.

Q: I have a property owned by my IRA and I obtained a non-recourse loan to purchase the property. Does my IRA need to file a 990-T tax return?

A: Most likely. A 990-T tax return is required if your IRA has income subject to UBIT tax. There is a tax called UDFI tax (Unrelated Debt Financed Income) that is triggered when your IRA uses debt to acquire an asset. Essentially, what the IRS does in this situation is they make you apportion the percent of your investment that is the IRA’s cash (tax favorable treatment) and the portion that is debt (subject to UDFI/UBIT tax) and your IRA ends up paying taxes on the profits that are generated from the debt as this is non-retirement plan money. If you have rental income for the year, then you can use expenses to offset this income. However, if you have $1,000 or more of gross income subject to UBIT, then you should file a 990-T tax return. In addition, if you have losses for the year, you may want to file 990-T to claim those losses as they can carry-forward to be used to offset future gains (e.g. sale of the property).

Q: How do I file a 990-T tax return for my IRA?

A: This is filed by your IRA and is not part of your personal tax return. If tax is due, you will need to send the completed tax form to your IRA Custodian along with an instruction to pay the tax due and your custodian will pay the taxes owed from the IRA to the IRS. Your IRA must obtain its own Tax ID to file Form 990-T. Your IRA custodian does not file this form or report UBIT tax to the IRS for your IRA. This is the IRA owner’s responsibility. Our law firm prepares and files 990-T tax returns for our self-directed IRA and 401(k) clients. Contact us at the law firm if you need assistance.

Sadly, not many professionals are familiar with the rules and tax procedures for self-directed IRAs, so it is important to seek out those attorneys, accountants, and CPAs who can help you understand your self-directed IRA tax reporting obligations. Our law firm routinely advises clients and their accountants on the rules and procedures that I have summarized in this article and we can also prepare and file your 990-T tax return.

Mat has been at the forefront of the self-directed IRA industry since 2006. He is the CEO of Directed IRA & Directed Trust Company where they handle all types of self-directed accounts (IRAs, Roth IRAs, HSAs, Coverdell ESA, Solo Ks, and Custodial Accounts) which are typically invested into real estate, private company/private equity, IRA/LLCs, notes, precious metals, and cryptocurrency. Mat is also a partner at KKOS Lawyers and serves clients nationwide from its Phoenix, AZ office.

He is published regularly on retirement, tax, and business topics, and is a VIP Contributor at Entrepreneur.com. Mat is the best-selling author of the most widely used book in the self-directed IRA industry, The Self-Directed IRA Handbook: An Authoritative Guide for Self-Directed Retirement Plan Investors and Their Advisors.