Every buyer of a small business should consider the following three key legal issues when acquiring a business.
1. Buy Assets and Not Liabilities.
Most small business purchases are done as what are called “Asset Purchases”. In an Asset Purchase the buyer of the business acquires the assets of the business only. The assets include the goodwill, name, equipment, supplies, inventory, customers, etc. According to the terms of a properly drafted Asset Purchase Agreement, the assets do not include the prior owner’s business liabilities (the known or unknown). Under an Asset Purchase the buyer typically establishes a new company which will operate the business. This new company is free from the prior company’s liabilities and actions.
A “Stock Purchase” on the other hand occurs when the buyer acquires the stock or LLC units of the existing business. There are a few downsides to acquiring a business under a stock purchase. First, if you buy the stock or units of an existing company then you get the existing assets AND the existing liabilities of the acquired company. Since a new buyer hasn’t operated the business it is impossible for them to accurately quantify the existing liabilities. The second downside to a Stock Purchase is that the new owner of the company takes the current tax position of the departing owner when it comes to writing off equipment and other items in the company at the time of purchase. The downside to this is that the seller of the business may have already fully written off these items leaving the new business owner with little business assets to depreciate (despite a significant financial investment). If, on the other hand, the buyer acquired the “assets” in an Asset Purchase the buyer would depreciate and expense those assets as the new business owner chooses and in the most aggressive manner possible. Bottom line, an Asset Purchase has less liability risk and has better tax benefits that will allow the buyer to generate better tax write-offs and deductions over the life of the business.
2. Negotiate For Some Seller Financed Terms.
Many small business purchases include some form of seller financed terms whereby the seller agrees to be paid a portion of the purchase price over time via a promissory note. Seller financing terms are excellent for the buyer because they keep the seller interested and motivated in the buyer’s success since business failure typically means that the buyer wont be able to fully pay the seller. If the seller gets all of their money at closing then the seller is typically less interested in helping transition the business to the new owner as the seller has already been paid in full. Also, if the seller misrepresented something in the business during the sale that results in financial loss to the buyer, the buyer can offset the loss or costs incurred by amounts the buyer owes the seller on the note. In sum, the seller financed note gives the buyer some leverage to make sure the value in the business is properly and fairly transferred.
3. Conduct Adequate Due Diligence.
While it may go without saying that a buyer of a business should conduct adequate due diligence, you would be surprised at how many business purchases occur simply based on the statements or e-mails of a seller as opposed to actual tax returns or third party financials showing the financial condition of the business. A few due diligence items to consider are; get copies of the prior tax returns for the company, get copies of third party financials, make the seller complete a due diligence questionnaire where the seller represents the condition of the business to the buyer (similar to what you complete when you sell a house to someone). A lawyer with experience in business transactions can help significantly in conducting the due diligence and in drafting the final documents.
Buying an existing business is not only a significant financial commitment but is also a significant time commitment. Make sure the business is something worth your time and money before you sign. Oh, and make sure you get a well drafted set of purchase documents to sign.
Do you need access to your retirement account funds to start a business, pay for education expenses or training, make a personal investment, or pay off high interest debt? Rather than taking a taxable distribution from your 401(k), you can access a portion of the funds in your 401(k) via a loan from the 401(k) to yourself without paying any taxes or penalties to access the funds. The loan must be paid back to the 401(k) but can be used for any purpose by the account owner.
Many people are familiar with this loan option, but are confused at how the rules work. The loan rules from the IRS are the same whether it is your solo 401(k) or a 401(k) with your current employer. Here is a summary of the items to know. For more details, check out the IRS Manual on the subject here.
FAQs on Loans from Your 401(k)
How much can I loan myself from my 401(k)?
50% of the vested account balance (FMV of the account) of the 401(k) not to exceed $50,000. So if you have $200,000 in your 401(k) you can loan yourself $50,000. If you have $80,000, you can loan yourself $40,000. If your spouse has an account, they can take a loan from their 401(k) too under the same rules (50% of the account balance not to exceed $50K).
What can I use the funds for?
By law, the loan can be used for anything you want. The funds can be used to start a business, personal investment, education expenses, pay bills, buy a home, or any personal purpose you want. Some employer plans restrict the purpose of the loan to certain pre-approved purposes but that is less common. Most don’t place restrictions. If you used the funds for business purposes, then you can expense the interest you and your business are paying back to your 401(k).
How do I pay back the loan to my own 401(k)?
The loan must be paid back in substantially level payments, at least quarterly, within 5 years. A lump sum payment at the end of the loan is not acceptable. For loans where the funds were used to purchase a home, the loan term can be up to 30 years.
What interest rate do I pay my 401(k)?
The interest rate to be charged is a commercially reasonable rate. This has been interpreted by the industry and the IRS/DOL to be prime plus 2% (currently that would be 5.25% as prime is 3.25%). If the loan was for the purchase of a home for the account owner then the rate is the federal home loan mortgage corporate rate for conventional fixed mortgages. Keep in mind that even though you are paying interest, you are paying that interest to your own 401(k) as opposed to paying a bank or credit card company.
How many loans can I take?
By law, you can take as many loans as you want provided that they do not collectively exceed 50% of the account balance or $50,000. However, if you are taking a loan from a current company plan, you may be restricted to one loan per 12-month period.
What happens if I don’t pay the loan back?
Any amount not repaid under the note will be considered a distribution and any applicable taxes and penalties will be due by the account owner.
Can I take a loan from my IRA?
No. The loan option is not available to IRA owners. However, if you are self-employed or are starting a new business, you can set up a solo or owner-only 401(k) (provided you have no other employees than the business owners and spouses), then roll your IRA or prior employer 401(k) funds to your new 401(k), and can take a loan from your new solo 401(k) account.
Can I take a loan from a previous employer 401(k) and use it to start a new business?
Many large employer 401(k) plans restrict loans to current employees. As a result, you probably won’t be able to take a loan from the prior 401(k). You may, however, be able to establish your own solo or owner-only 401(k) in your new business. You would then roll over your old 401(k) plan to your new solo/owner only 401(k) plan, and would take a loan from that new 401(k).
Can I take a loan from my Roth 401(k) account?
Some plans restrict this, but it is possible to take a loan from the Roth designated portion of your 401(k).
What if I have a 401(k) loan and change employers?
Many employer plans require you to pay off any outstanding loans within 60 days of your last date of employment. If your new employer offers a 401(k) with a loan option, or if you establish a solo/owner-only 401(k), you can roll over your prior employer loan/note to your new 401(k). Also, many plans have waivers to avoid total payoff (not payments) and give you time for repayment if you leave employment.
The 401(k) loan option is a relatively easy and efficient way to use your retirement account funds to start a small business, to pay for non-traditional education expenses, or to consolidate debt to a better rate of interest. If you have more questions about accessing your 401(k) funds, please contact us our attorneys at KKOS Lawyers by phone at (602) 761-9798 or visit kkoslawyers.com.
Are you growing your business? Adding new products or services? New locations? Adding partners or owners? If so, these are all instances when you should consider setting up a subsidiary or other new entity for your existing company. While you can run multiple streams of business through one entity, there are tax, asset protection, and partnership reasons why you may want to open up a new subsidiary entity for your new activity.
Let’s run through a few common situations when it makes sense to open up a subsidiary entity. And by subsidiary, I mean “a new entity which is owned wholly or partly by your primary business entity or by a common holding company.” Your new subsidiary could result in a parent and child relationship where your primary entity (parent) owns the new subsidiary entity (child), or it could be a brother and sister type structure where the primary business is a separate entity (brother) to the new entity (sister) and the two are only connected by you or your holding company that owns each separately and distinctly. (See the diagrams below to view the differences.)
I. Adding a New Product or Service
You may want a new entity to separate and differentiate services or products for liability purposes. For example, let’s say you are a real estate broker providing services of buying and selling properties and you decide to start providing property management services. Because the property management service entails more liability risk, a new entity owned wholly by your existing business could be utilized. The benefit of the new subsidiary is that if anything occurs in the new property management business, then that liability is contained in the new subsidiary and does not go down and affect your existing purchase and sale business. On the other hand, if you ran the property management services directly from the existing company without a new subsidiary and a liability arose, then your purchase and sale business that is running through the same entity would be effected and subject to the liability.
For tax purposes, in this instance, the income from the new subsidiary entity (child) will flow down to the parent entity without a federal tax return, and as a result, there is no benefit or disadvantage from a tax planning standpoint.
II. Opening a New Location
What if you’re establishing a new retail or office location for your business? Let’s say you are a restaurant opening up your second location. For asset protection purposes, you should consider setting up a second entity for the new location. This can limit your risk on the lease (don’t sign a personal guarantee) for the new location or for any liability that may occur at the new location. In this instance, if one location fails or has liability, it won’t affect the other location as they are held in separate entities. The saying goes, “don’t put all your eggs in one basket.” In this case, the basket is the same entity and the locations are your eggs. In the multiple location scenario, you should consider the brother-sister subsidiary structure such that each location is owned in a brother-sister relationship (e.g. neither owns the other) and their common connection is simply the underlying company (or person) who owns each entity for each location. Because both locations have risk it is useful for each to have their own entity and not to own each other (as can occur in the parent-child subsidiary). When structured in a brother-sister relationship, the liability for each location is contained in each subsidiary entity and cannot run over into the other subsidiary entity (the sibling entity) or down to the owner (which may be you personally or your operational holding company).
For tax purposes, the brother and sister subsidiary income (usually single member LLCs) flows down to the parent or primary entity where a tax return is filed (usually an S-Corp). (See the diagram below for an illustration.)
III. Adding a New Partner
Maybe you’re starting a new business or operation where you have a new partner involved. If this partner isn’t involved in your other business activities or your existing company, it is critical that a new entity be established to operate the new partnership business. If you have an existing entity where you run business operational income (e.g., an S-Corporation), then this entity may own your share of the new partnership entity (e.g., an LLC) with your new partner. Your share of the new partnership income flows through the partnership to your existing business entity where you will recognize the income and pay yourself. In this instance, your existing entity is the parent and the new partnership is a partial-child subsidiary. The new partnership entity will typically file a partnership tax return.
IV. California Caveat
Because of gross receipts taxes in California, you may use a Q-Sub entity model where the subsidiary entity is actually another S-Corporation and is called a Q-Sub. This is available only when the parent entity is an S-Corporation and can avoid double gross receipts tax at the subsidiary and parent entity level.
Make sure you speak to your tax attorney for specific planning considerations as there are asset protection and tax considerations unique to each business and subsidiary structure.
Most self directed IRA owners know that their self directed IRA cannot conduct transactions with themselves or certain family members (e.g. spouse, kids, parents, etc.). Most self directed IRA owners also know that their self directed IRA cannot do business with a company they own or that their disqualified family members own 50% or more of. However, one of the most confusing areas of the prohibited transaction rules are the prohibited transaction rules which apply to business partners or officers, directors, and/or highly compensated employees of companies the IRA owner or family members are personally involved in. For example, what if I own a business with a partner? Can my IRA enter into a transaction with that business partner if we aren’t family? Well, it depends.
Disqualified Person Analysis
To analyze the rules you first need to determine whether the company in which the business partner (or officer, or director) is involved in is a company that is owned 50% or more by the IRA owner or their disqualified family members. IRC 4975 (e)(2)(E),(H), (I). So, for example, if my wife and I owned 60% of the business and our partner owned 40% of the business, then this company would be owned 50% or more by disqualified persons.
Once we know that the company is owned 50% or more by disqualified persons, we need to identify all of the officers, directors, highly compensated employees, and 10 % or more owners of that company. In sum, all of these persons are disqualified to the IRAs of the 50% or more owners. In the example above, since my business partner owned 40% of the company, he is a 10% or more owner and as a result he is a disqualified person to my IRA (since my wife and I own 50% or more of the company).
Let’s look at another example. Say that I am a 35% owner of a business with a few other partners who are not disqualified family members to me. Since I do not own 50% or more of this company, it doesn’t matter who the other partners, officers, or directors, are, as they are not disqualified to my IRA as part of this rule since my ownership (and that of my disqualified family members) is below 50%.
As a final example, let’s say that I own 70% of a company and that I have a partner who owns 5%. Under the rule, my partner or fellow shareholder does not have 10% or greater ownership and as a result they are not disqualified to my IRA. However, if that 5% owner was the President of my company then they would be a disqualified person.
These rules can be tough to understand when you read the code, but if you take the two step analysis you can easily determine what partners, officer, directors, or highly compensated employees are disqualified to your IRA.
Here’s also a quick summary of the rule from my book where I took the text of the tax code and put it into plain language.
Key Persons in Company Owned 50% or More by Disqualified Persons
An officer, director, or 10% or more shareholder, or highly compensated employee (earns 10% or more of the company’s wages) of a company owned by the IRA owner or other disqualified persons. IRC § 4975 (e)(2)(H).
Before investing with someone who is an officer, director, highly compensated employee, or a shareholder/owner in a company you are involved in, please consult these rules and where you are un-clear, seek the advice of competent counsel.
One of the most common tax minimization strategies used by operational small business owners is known as the salary/dividend or salary/net income split. This strategy can only be properly executed in an s-corporation where a business owner can pay themselves a portion of income in salary and a portion of income in dividend or net profit. The ultimate goal is to pay as little salary as possible (and therefore as much net income as possible) so as to minimize the amount of self employment taxes that are due.
This strategy cannot be utilized in a c-corporation nor can it be utilized in an LLC or sole proprietorship. It is only possible in an s-corporation as similar income running through a sole proprietorship or an LLC is entirely subject to self employment tax as income cannot be split between salary and net income in an LLC or sole proprietorship. Also, keep in mind that such a strategy is not utilized in passive business structures such as real estate businesses as rental income, interest income, and other passive income is exempt from self employment tax and therefore it is not necessary to implement the income splitting technique of the s-corporation.
In short, the strategy is implemented by “splitting” the income that is payable to the s-corporation owner into two categories: salary and net income (aka dividend). The reason this splitting of income is advantageous is that net income received by the s-corporation owner is not subject to the 15.3% self employment tax that is otherwise due and payable on salary. For every $10,000 of income an s-corporation owner can classify as net income as opposed to salary the business owner will save $1,530. Keep in mind that after about $100,000 of salary the savings of pushing additional income to net income is reduced as the self employment tax rate drops to 2.9%. It is still certainly worth implementing at higher income but the savings are then made at the 2.9% rate.
Watson v. Commissioner
When this strategy was first utilized many years ago, some taxpayers decided to just pay all of their income out as net income and elected to take no salary or wages and therefore pay no self employment tax. This was quickly challenged by the IRS and Revenue Ruling 59-221 was issued which stated that a business owner who renders services to their business must take “reasonable compensation” for the services rendered. Over the years, the Courts have ruled on many cases of what is reasonable compensation but in 2012 the Courts made a significant ruling where they adjusted a business owners allocation between salary and net income in a case known as Watson v. Commissioner, 668 F.3d 1008 (8th Cir, 2012).
In Watson, the owner/employee Watson was a CPA and took $24,000 of salary a year and about $190,000 of annual net income. The IRS challenged the allocation of $24,000 of salary as being unreasonably too low. Watson lost in the District Court and appealed to the 8th Circuit Court of Appeals who re-characterized Watson’s income to $93,000 of salary and about $120,000 of net income. The case is an important one for properly understanding the factors that should be considered in all businesses when determining how much income a business owner can claim as net income instead of salary. Here are some of those factors.
Factors Determining Net Income
- Professional services businesses should take a larger portion of salary to net income than those in non-professional services: If the business is a professional services business (e.g. physician, dentist, lawyer, consultant, real estate broker, contractor, etc.) the IRS will more carefully scrutinize the services provided by business owners because the business provides a personal service.
- Full-time working business owners should take a larger portion of salary to net income than part-time working business owners: If the business owner is involved full time in the business, more salary will be required. If the business owner’s involvement is part time or if they are involved in other businesses, a much lower salary can be justified.
- Don’t take a salary that is below the salary paid to lower level employees in the business: In the Watson case the Court determined that a salary for Watson of $24,000 was not reasonable as new accountants salaries at his office were more than this.
- Take a salary that is around the industry average for a person of similar experience in your industry: In the Watson case the Court scrutinized the experience and training of Watson and determined that a salary of $24,000 was not reasonable as accountants with similar experience and training in the industry were paid at least $70,000.
In summary, the salary/net income split is a legitimate tax planning technique for business owners but it is not one in which a business owner making over $200,000 a year can justify taking about 10% of income as salary (as was the case in Watson). The Court disallowed the 10% salary level but did allow him to take about 43% of his income as salary (and almost 60% as net income). This still resulted in some excellent tax savings.
As a general rule, we recommend that business owners take at least 1/3 of their income as salary and pay self employment tax on those amounts. Many other factors should be considered, such as those outlined above, and every business has a unique situation. The good news is that taking a large portion of income from a business as net income as opposed to salary is alive and valid and there are plenty of taxes to be saved each year by using this strategy. A business owner just can’t get too aggressive and take salary levels that are grossly below what people with similar experience in the industry are paid.