If you’ve inherited an IRA from a parent or other loved one, it is likely that you have a beneficiary IRA. These can be powerful accounts, but you need to understand the required minimum distribution (“RMD”) rules for your beneficiary IRA to properly utilize it. The inherited IRA may be a traditional or Roth IRA and there are three different distribution options you may elect when you inherit the IRA.
You will have three distribution options upon the death of your loved one to receive the funds from their IRA. In general, the best option is the “Life Expectancy Method” as it allows you to delay the withdrawal of funds from the IRA, and allows the money invested to grow tax-deferred (traditional) or tax-free (Roth). The three options are outlined fully below:
1. Lump Sum
The first option is to simply take a lump-sum and be taxed on the full distribution. There is no 10% early withdrawal penalty (regardless of your age or their deceased owner), but you are taxed on the amount distributed if it is a traditional IRA. You’re also giving up the tax-deferred (traditional) or tax-free (Roth) benefits of the account. Don’t take this option. It’s the worst tax and financial option you have.
2. Life Expectancy Method
The Life Expectancy Method is the best option. Under this option, you take distributions from the inherited IRA over your life-time based on the value of the account. These distributions are required for traditional IRAs and even for inherited Roth IRAs. For example, if you inherited a $100,000 IRA at age 50, you would have to take about $3,000 a year as a required minimum distribution each year. The RMD amount changes each year as you age and as the account value grows or decreases. There is no 10% early withdrawal penalty. Traditional beneficiary IRA distributions are taxable to the beneficiary, and Roth IRA distributions are tax-free. And yes, beneficiary Roth IRAs are subject to RMD even though there is no RMD for regular Roth IRAs.
3. 5-Year Method
This option is available to all inherited Roth accounts, but is only available to inherited traditional IRAs where the deceased account owner was under age 70 1/2 at the date of their death. Under this option, the beneficiary IRA is not subject to RMD. However, it must be fully distributed by December 31st of the fifth year following the year of the account owner’s death. There is no 10% early withdrawal penalty, and distributions are subject to tax. Again, this option is only available to traditional accounts.
Investing with a Self-Directed Beneficiary IRA
Yes, you can self-direct your beneficiary IRA. Before you do, make sure you understand the amount of funds you’ll need to take as an RMD, and that you will have available cash in the account to cover the those RMDs. As I described above, assume you are 50 and inherited a beneficiary IRA for $100,000. You will need to take annual distributions of around $3,000. So, if you invest all of the $100,000 into an illiquid asset, then you will be unable to take RMDs and force the IRA account to pay stiff penalties. Consequently, when making a self-directed investment from a beneficiary IRA, you must take into account the amount of the investment, the total value of the account, and the time-line of the investment (when will it generate cash back to the IRA). If you inherited the $100,000 account above, you may decide to only invest $70,000 of the beneficiary IRA into an illiquid investment (e.g. real estate or private company), while leaving the other $30,000 to be invested into liquid investments like publicly-traded stocks, CDs, cash or mutual funds. This will leave funds available for RMD until such time as the illiquid investment generates income or is sold for profit.
Stretching out the benefits of an inherited IRA can be powerful, but make sure you plan for RMDs before you make any self-directed investment from your beneficiary IRA.
A common question among self-directed IRA investors is, “Can I buy a future retirement home with my IRA?” Yes, you can buy a future retirement home with your IRA, but you need to understand the rules and drawbacks before doing so. First, keep in mind that IRAs can only hold investments and you cannot go buy a residence or second home with your IRA for personal use. However, you can buy an investment property with a self-directed IRA (aka “SDIRA”) that you later distribute from your IRA and use personally.
The strategy essentially works in two phases. First, the IRA purchases the property and owns it as an investment until the IRA owner decides to retire. You’ll need to use a SDIRA for this type of investment. Second, upon retirement of the IRA owner (after age 59 ½), the IRA owner distributes the property via a title transfer from the SDIRA to the IRA owner personally and now the IRA owner may use it and benefit from it personally as the asset is outside the IRA. Before proceeding down this path, an SDIRA owner should consider a couple of key issues.
Avoid Prohibited Transactions
The prohibited transaction rules found in IRC Section 4975, which apply to all IRA investments, do not allow the IRA owner or certain family members to have any use or benefit from the property while it is owned by the IRA. The IRA must hold the property strictly for investment. The property may be leased to unrelated third parties, but it cannot be leased or used by the IRA owner or prohibited family members (e.g., spouse, kids, parents, etc.). Only after the property has been distributed from the self-directed IRA to the IRA owner may the IRA owner or family members reside at or benefit from the property.
Distribute the Property Fully Before Personal Use
The property must be distributed from the IRA to the IRA owner before the IRA owner or his/her family may use the property. Distribution of the property from the IRA to the IRA owner is called an “in-kind” distribution, and results in taxes due for traditional IRAs. For traditional IRAs, the custodian of the IRA will require a professional appraisal of the property before allowing the property to be distributed to the IRA owner. The fair market value of the property is then used to set the value of the distribution. For example, if my IRA owned a future retirement home that was appraised at $250,000, upon distribution of this property from my IRA (after age 59 ½) I would receive a 1099-R for $250,000 issued from my IRA custodian to me personally.
Because the tax burden upon distribution can be significant, this strategy is not one without its drawbacks. Some owners will instead take partial distributions of the property over time, holding a portion of the property personally and a portion still in the IRA to spread out the tax consequences of distribution. This can be burdensome though, as it requires appraisals each year to set the fair market valuation. While this can lessen the tax burden by keeping the IRA owner in lower tax brackets, the IRA owner and his/her family still cannot personally use or benefit from the property until it is entirely distributed from the IRA. Many investors will use an IRA/LLC and will transfer the LLC ownership over time from the IRA to the IRA owner to accomplish distribution.
For Roth IRAs, the distribution of the property will not be taxable as qualified Roth IRA distributions are not subject to tax. For an extensive discussion of the tax consequences of distribution, please refer to IRS Publication 590.
Additionally, keep in mind that the IRA owners should wait until after he/she turns 59 ½ before taking the property as a distribution, as there is an early withdrawal penalty of 10% for distributions before age 59 ½.
As stated at the outset of this article, while the strategy is possible, it is not for everyone and certainly is not the easiest to accomplish. As a result, self-directed IRA investors should make sure they understand the rules – no personal use while owned by the IRA – and drawbacks – taxes upon distribution and before personal use – before purchasing a future retirement home with their IRA.
I had the pleasure of interviewing Kevin Harrington on our Refresh Your Wealth podcast last week. Kevin was an original shark on the hit TV Show Shark Tank and appeared on 160 episodes. He is also the founder of the infomercial, a pioneer of As Seen On TV, and a co-founder of Entrepreneur’s Organization (EO). He also took a $500M company public on the NYSE. In short, he’s the perfect person to ask on how to pitch your business, product, or investment. In the podcast you can hear Kevin provide his Top 9 tips for pitching your deal, business, or product. I’ve noted the Top 9 list below and you can check out the podcast here.
- Get Their Attention. Start strong and don’t get too far into the details.
- Show Problem. Why is your deal, product, or business needed?
- Show Solution. What is your solution to the need?
- Why are You Unique to Solve. What makes you so special? Why are you the person or company to solve this problem?
- Magical Transformation. Show me how this works. Wow me with how cool this is.
- Have Testimonials. Have testimonials of people who’ve experienced your company, product or service.
- Irresistible Offer. Make an irresistible offer. In the case of courting an investor, make me feel good about getting my money back first. Provide a term that I get paid back my cash investment first before you take any profit. For a product or service, give me a call to action.
- Use of Proceeds. If I’m investing money, tell me how the money is going to be used. Is it buying a property, inventory, funding R&D, or paying your salary? That makes big difference.
- Create an Invest or Buy Now Incentive. I may be interested but why should I do this now while you have my attention. Close the deal and give me comfort that this will be okay (money back guarantee, warranty, personal guarantee).
I’ve listened to plenty of clients explain their deal and/or business and found this list to be very insightful and practical. Enjoy!
You can find this interview as well as hundreds of other episodes on iTunes under Refresh Your Wealth or at refreshyourwealth.com. Pleas subscribe and tune in weekly for new episodes.
Unrelated Business Income Tax (“UBIT”) is often misunderstood by self-directed IRA investors and their professional advisors. In essence, UBIT is a tax that is due to an IRA when it receives “business income” as opposed to “investment income”. When we think of IRAs and retirement accounts, we think of them as receiving income without having to pay tax when the income is made. For example, when your IRA sells stock for a profit and that profit goes back to your IRA you don’t pay any tax on the gain. Similarly, when you sell real estate owned by your IRA for a profit and that profit goes back to your IRA, you don’t pay any tax on the gain. The reason for this is because the gain from the sale of an investment asset is deemed investment income and as a result it is exempt for UBIT tax.
Tip 1: “When Does UBIT Apply?”
UBIT applies when your IRA receives “unrelated business income”. However, if your IRA receives investment income, then that income is exempt from UBIT tax. Investment income that is exempt from UBIT includes the following.
Investment Income Exempt from UBIT:
- Real Estate Rental Income, IRC 512(b)(3) – The rent of real estate is investment income and is exempt from UBIT
- Interest Income, IRC 512(b)(1) – Interest and points made from the lending of money is investment income and is exempt from UBIT.
- Capital Gain Income, IRC 512(b)(5) – The sale, exchange, or disposition of assets is investment income and is exempt from UBIT.
- Dividend Income, IRC 512(b)(1) – Dividend income from a c-corp where the company paid corporate tax is investment income and exempt from UBIT.
- Royalty Income, IRC 512(b)(2) – Royalty income derived from intangible property rights such as intellectual property and from oil/gas and mineral leasing activities is investment income and is exempt from UBIT.
There are two common areas where self-directed IRA investors run into UBIT issues and are outside of the exemptions outlined above. The first occurs when an IRA invests and buys LLC ownership in an operating business (e.g. sells goods or services) that is structured as a pass-thru entity for taxes (e.g. partnership) and that that does not pay corporate taxes. The income from the LLC flows to its owners and would be ordinary income. If the company has net taxable income it will flow down to the IRA as ordinary income on the k-1 and this will cause tax to the IRA as this will be business income and it does not fit into one of the investment income exemptions.
The second problematic area is when IRAs engage in real estate investment that do not result in investment income. For example, real estate development or a number of significant short-term real estate flips by an IRA will cause the assets of the IRA to be considered as inventory as opposed to investment assets and this will cause UBIT tax to the IRA.
Tip 2: UBIT Applies When You Have Debt Leveraging an IRA Investment
UBIT also applies to an IRA when it leverages its purchasing power with debt. If an IRA uses debt to buy an investment, then the income attributable to the debt is subject to UBIT. This income is referred to as unrelated debt financed income (UDFI) and it causes UBIT. The most common situation occurs when an IRA buys real estate with a non-recourse loan. For example, lets say an IRA buys a rental property for $100,000 and that $40,000 came from the IRA and $60,000 came form a non-recourse loan. The property is thus 60% leveraged and as a result, 60% of the income is not a result of the IRAs investment but the result of the debt invested. Because of this debt, that is not retirement plan money, the IRS requires tax to be paid on 60% of the income. So, if there is $10K of rental income on the property then $6K would be UDFI and would be subject to UBIT taxes.
For a more detailed outline on UDFI, please refer to my free one-hour webinar here.
Tip 3: UBIT Tax is Reported and Paid by the IRA via a Form 990-T Tax Return
Unrelated business income tax (UBIT) for an IRA is reported and paid via IRS Form 990-T. IRS Form 990-T is due for IRAs on April 15th of each year. IRA owner’s can file and obtain an automatic 3-month extension with the IRS by filing an extension request before the regular deadline.
If UBIT Tax is due, it is paid from the IRA and the IRA owner would send the prepared Form 990-T to their IRA custodian for their signature and for direction of payment to the IRS for any tax due as part of the 990-T Return.
For a more detailed outline of UBIT, please refer to Chapter 15 of The Self Directed IRA Handbook.