IRA Contribution Deadlines: Two Out of Three IRA Types Can’t be Extended

Exterior photo of the IRS building and sign with text reading "IRA Contribution Deadlines: Two Out of Three IRA Types Can't Be Extended."You have until April 18th, 2017 to make 2016 IRA contributions for Roth and Traditional IRAs. If you’re self-employed and are using a SEP, your deadline is determined by your company’s tax filing deadline (e.g. s-corp, partnership, or sole prop). So, if you were an s-corp or partnership in 2016, then your filing deadline was March 15th, 2017. II you are a sole prop, then the deadline is April 18th, 2017. If you extended your company return, that extension will also apply to your SEP IRA contributions. The table below breaks down the deadlines and extension options for Traditional, Roth and SEP IRAs.

Type of IRA Contribution Type Deadline Details
Traditional IRA Traditional, Deductible April 18th, 2017: Due Date for Individual Tax Return Filing (not including extensions). IRC § 219(f)(3); You can file your return claiming a contribution before the contribution is actually made.  Rev. Rul. 84-18.
Roth IRA Roth, Not Deductible April 18th, 2017: Due Date for Individual Tax Return Filing (not including extensions). IRC § 408A(c)(7).
SEP IRA  Employee, Deductible N/A: Employee contributions cannot be made to a SEP IRA plan.
Employer Contribution, Deductible March 15/April 15th: Due Date for Company Tax Return Filing (including extensions). IRC § 404(h)(1)(B).

As outlined above, you have until the 2016 individual tax return deadline of April 18th, 2017 to make 2016 Traditional and Roth IRA contributions. The deadline for Traditional and Roth IRAs, however, does not include extensions. So, even if you extend your 2016 tax return, your 2016 Traditional and Roth IRA contributions are still due on April 18th, 2017.

SEP IRA contribution deadlines are based on the company tax return deadline, which could be March 15th if the company is taxed as a corporation (“c” or “s”) or partnership, and April 15th if it is a sole proprietorship. Keep in mind that this deadline includes extensions, so if you extend your company tax return filing, you will extend the time period to make 2016 SEP IRA contributions.

Alert: The RISE Act Will Drastically Impact Self-Directed IRAs

6mbve1477367970The Retirement Improvements and Savings Enhancements Act (“RISE Act“) has drastic changes and provisions that effect self-directed IRA investors. From mandatory third-party valuations on all retirement account investment transactions to changing the 50% disqualified company rule to 10%, the bill has some significant changes that will negatively affect your ability to self-direct your account. There are some favorable provisions for IRA owners, however, the negatives greatly outweigh the positives.

 

Most Important Provisions

The bill sponsor is Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) who is the Ranking Member of the Senate Finance Committee and the Joint Committee on Taxation. Here’s a quick run-down of the most troublesome provisions that apply to self-directed IRA investors:

  • Valuation Purchase/Sale Requirement. Mandatory Valuation Requirement for Private IRA (non-public stock market) Transactions: The new proposal seeks to require gifting valuation rules and standards for IRA transactions. This rule will force IRA owners to get a valuation before making any private investment. This valuation would include real estate, private company (e.g. LLC, LP, corporation), and note investments. The gifting valuation rules were created to value gifts where no value is set between a buyer and seller. mandating those same rules on actual transactions between an IRA and another unrelated party is unrealistic and unnecessary to establish actual fair market value.
  • 50% Rule is Reduced to a New 10% Rule: Changes the 50% rule that states a company is a disqualified person to an IRA when it is owned 50% or more by disqualified persons (e.g. IRA owner and certain family). The new rule makes a company disqualified when owned 10% or more by disqualified persons.
  • Roth IRAs Capped at $5M: Roth IRAs will be capped at $5M. Any amount over $5M must be distributed from the Roth IRA.
  • Eliminate Roth Conversions: Traditional IRA funds cannot be converted to Roth IRA funds. Roth IRAs will be allowed only if the account owner makes initial Roth IRA contributions and only when they meet the Roth IRA contribution limits, which restricts high-income earners.
  • Require RMD for Roth IRAs: Roth IRAs are currently not subject to required minimum distribution (“RMD”) rules because the amounts distributed do not result in tax. This rule will change and RMD will apply to Roth IRAs when the account holder reaches age 70 ½.

These proposals will have drastic impacts on self-directed IRA investors. The valuation requirement is perhaps the most dramatic as it will require valuations before an IRA can buy an asset and before it can sell an asset. Not only will this cause administrative issues and increased costs, but it will undoubtedly replace the ability of an IRA buyer or an IRA seller from transacting their IRA at the price and value they determine to represent the actual current fair market value of their investments.

I have written a detailed analysis of the bill which I plan to share with the Senate Finance Committee and the Joint Committee on Taxation. I welcome your input as a self-directed IRA investor and plan to advocate for common-sense rules that help self-directed investors take control of their retirement. My draft bill analysis can be accessed at the link below. Please send your comments to mat@kkoslawyers.com.

draft-rise-act-2016-analysis-by-mat-sorensen

 

 

Fact and Fiction for IRA RMDs

Image of one thumb up next to another thumb down with the text "Fact and Fiction for IRA RMDs."If you are age 70 1/2 or older and if you have a traditional IRA (or SEP or SIMPLE IRA or 401k), you must take your 2015 required minimum distributions (“RMD”) by December 31, 2015. In short, the RMD rules require you to distribute a portion of funds from your retirement account to yourself personally. These distributed funds are subject to tax and need to be included on your personal tax return. Let’s take an example to illustrate how the rule works. Sally is 72 and is required to take RMD each year. She has an IRA with $250,000 in it. According to the distribution rules, see IRS Publication 590, she will need to distribute $9,765 by the end of the year. This equates to about 4% of her account value. Next year, she will re-calculate this annual distribution amount based on the accounts value and her age. Once you know how to calculate the RMD, determining the distribution amount is relatively easy. However, the rules of when RMD applies and to what accounts can be confusing. To help sort out the confusion, I have outlined some facts and fiction that every retirement account owner should know about RMDs. First, let’s cover the facts. Then, we’ll tackle the fiction.

Fact

  1. No RMD for Roth IRAs: Roth IRAs are exempt from RMDs. Even if you are 70/12 or older, you’re not required to take distributions from your Roth IRA. Why is that? Because there is no tax due when you take a distribution from your Roth IRA. As a result, the government doesn’t really care whether you distribute the funds or not as they don’t receive any tax revenue.
  2. RMD Can Be Taken From One IRA to Satisfy RMD for All IRAs: While each account will have an RMD amount to be distributed, you can total those amounts and can satisfy that total amount from one IRA. It is up to you. So, for example, if you have a self directed IRA with a property you don’t want to sell to pay RMD and a brokerage IRA with stock you want to sell to pay RMD, then you can sell the stock in the brokerage IRA and use those funds to satisfy the RMD for both IRAs. You can’t combine RMD though for 401(k) and IRA accounts. Only IRA to IRA or 401(k) to 401(k).
  3. 50% Excise Tax Penalty: There is a 50% excise tax penalty on the amount you failed to take as RMD. So, for example, if you should’ve taken $10,000 as RMD, but failed to do so, you will be subject to a $5,000 excise tax penalty. Check back next month where I will summarize some measures and relief procedures you can take if you failed to take required RMD.
  4. 401(k) Account Holder Still Working for 401(k) Employer: If you have a 401(k) with a current employer and if you are still working for that employer, you can delay RMD for as long as you are still working at that employer. This exception doesn’t apply to former employer 401(k) accounts even if you are otherwise employed.

Fiction

  1. RMD Due by End of Year: You can make 2015 RMD payments until the tax return deadline of April 15, 2016. Wrong! While you can make 2015 IRA contributions up until the tax return deadline of April 15, 2016, RMD distributions must be done by December 31, 2015.
  2. Roth 401(k)s are Subject to RMDs: While Roth IRAs and Roth 401(k)s are both tax-free accounts, the RMD rules apply differently. As I stated above, Roth IRAs are exempt from RMD rules. However, Roth 401(k) owners are required to take RMD. Keep in mind, you could roll your Roth 401(k) to a Roth IRA and thereby you would avoid having to take RMD but if you keep the account as a Roth 401(k) then you will be required to start taking RMD at age 70 ½. The distributions will not be subject to tax but they will start the slow process of removing funds from the tax-free account.
  3. RMD Must Be Taken In Cash: False. Required Minimum distributions may be satisfied by taking cash distributions or by taking a distribution of assets in kind. While a cash distribution is the easiest method to take RMD, you may also satisfy RMD by distributing assets in kind. This may be stock or real estate or other assets that you don’t want to sell or that you cannot sell. This doesn’t occur often but some self directed IRA owners will end up holding an asset they don’t want to sell because of current market conditions (e.g. real estate) and they decide to take distributions of portions of the real estate in-kind in order to satisfy RMD. This process is complicated and requires an appraisal of the asset(s) being distributed and partial deed transfers (or partial LLC membership interest transfers, if the IRA owns an LLC and the LLC owns the real estate) from the IRA to the IRA owner. While this isn’t the recommended course to satisfy RMD, it is a potential solution to IRA owners who are holding an asset, who have no other IRA funds to distribute for RMD, and who wish to only take a portion of the asset to satisfy their annual RMD.

The RMD rules are complicated and it is easy to make a mistake. Keep in mind that once you know how the RMD rules apply in your situation it is generally going to apply in the same manner every year thereafter with only some new calculations based on your age and account balances each year thereafter.

Click here for a nice summary of the RMD rules from the IRS.