The SECURE Act was signed into law by President Trump at the end of 2019, and makes sweeping changes to the laws affecting retirement plans, including IRAs. The law, known as the SECURE Act, is a mixed bag of good, bad, and ugly. This article breaks down the details that IRA owners need to know moving forward.
RMD Age Raised to 72
- Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs) are no longer required until the IRA owner reaches 72. Prior to the new law, RMDs were required once the account owner reached age 70½. By extending the RMD requirement to 72, IRA owners can delay taking distributions from the IRA by an additional 1½ years. This is a good thing as you can let more money grow tax-deferred. The 70½ year rule was also confusing, as it takes a while to do the math and figure out what year you turn 70½. It used to be the only half-birthday you had to keep track of. There is still no RMD requirement on Roth IRAs. Also, if you already reached 70½ in 2019 or earlier, then you continue taking distributions as usual (even if you aren’t yet 72).
IRA Age Limit for Contributions Removed
- There is no longer an age restriction on when you can contribute to an IRA. Prior to the law, Traditional IRA contributions were restricted once you reached RMD age of 70½. Under the new law, there is no longer a restriction (even when you each 72). This means older IRA owners who are still working or have earned income can continue to contribute to a Traditional IRA.
Exception to 10% Early Withdrawal Penalty for Birth or Adoption
- A new exception to the 10% early withdrawal penalty was added in the case of the birth or adoption of a child. This is limited to $5,000, but will allow new parents to withdraw up to $5,000 from any IRA or other retirement account without having a 10% early withdrawal penalty apply. Taxes would still be due on Traditional (pre-tax) funds withdrawn, but the 10% penalty is waived.
The Stretch IRA Has Been Gutted
- The Stretch IRA, whereby a non-spouse could inherit an IRA or Roth IRA and take distributions over their lifetime, has been gutted. While a non-spouse can still inherit an IRA or Roth IRA, the account (in most instances) must be distributed in 10 years. There are no annual distributions required under this new rule over the 10-year period. Instead, the total account balance just needs to be distributed in 10 years. So, if you inherit an IRA in 2020 or later, then you will have 10 years to continue investing the account and you can take distributions whenever you want (or just at the end) with the full amount being distributed within 10 years. There are some persons who can still use the old Stretch IRA rules, but these groups are limited and include: Disabled or chronically ill persons, minor children inheriting, and beneficiaries not more than 10 years younger than the IRA owner.
The elimination of the Stretch IRA was bad and ugly. What else can I say? The only good news is that those who have already inherited one in 2019 or earlier can still operate as usual. Everyone else who looked forward to one will have to take solace in the fact that they at least have 10 years of “stretching” to continue investing the funds in a tax-free (Roth) or tax-deferred (Traditional) manner. And, under the new rule, there is no RMD rule in effect each year. Instead, the total amount must be distributed at the end of 10 years. This makes things a little easier with self-directed assets and also helps any IRA owner – 10 years is still a good amount of time – get a little bit of additional tax-deferred (Traditional) or tax-free (Roth) growth.
At Directed IRA we are a custodian of inherited Traditional IRAs and inherited Roth IRAs, we are keenly aware of the changes and are helping our clients understand the new rules. Please reach out and gives us a call if you have questions on these new rules.
If you’ve inherited an IRA from a parent or another loved one, it is likely that you have a Inherited IRA (aka, Beneficiary IRA). These can be powerful accounts, but you need to understand the Required Minimum Distribution (“RMD”) rules for your Inherited IRA to properly utilize it. The inherited IRA may be a Traditional or Roth IRA, and there are three different distribution options you may elect when you inherit the IRA. These distribution options dictate how you can invest the account. Please note that if you inherit an account from a spouse, you can just do a spousal rollover and consider the account as yours. This article is for those inheriting an IRA from a non-spouse.
You will have three distribution options upon the death of your loved one to receive the funds from their IRA. In general, the best option is the “Life Expectancy Method” as it allows you to delay the withdrawal of funds from the IRA, and allows the money invested to grow tax-deferred (Traditional) or tax-free (Roth). The three options are outlined fully below:
The first option is to simply take a lump-sum and be taxed on the full distribution. There is no 10% early withdrawal penalty (regardless of your age or the deceased owner), but you are taxed on the amount distributed if it is a Traditional IRA. You’re also giving up the tax-deferred (Traditional) or tax-free (Roth) benefits of the account. Don’t take this option. It’s the worst tax and financial option you have.
Life Expectancy Method – Stretch IRA
The Life Expectancy Method is the best option. Under this option, you take distributions from the inherited IRA over your lifetime based on the value of the account. These distributions are required for Traditional IRAs and even for inherited Roth IRAs. For example, if you inherited a $100,000 IRA at age 50, you would have to take about $3,000 a year as a required minimum distribution each year and the rest can stay invested. The RMD amount changes each year as you age and as the account value grows or decreases. There is no 10% early withdrawal penalty when you pull money out of the account regardless of your age. Traditional Inherited IRA distributions are taxable to the Beneficiary while Roth IRA distributions are tax-free. And yes, Inherited Roth IRAs are subject to RMD even though there is no RMD for regular Roth IRAs.
There is pending legislation which the House has passed, but the Senate has sat on, which would limit the ability to stretch the IRA out to a maximum of 10 years. Even if that legislation passes, the Stretch IRA will be a good option to at least continue the tax benefits of the inherited IRA for 10 years.
This option is available to all inherited Roth accounts, but is only available to inherited Traditional IRAs where the deceased account owner was under age 70 1/2 at the date of their death. Under this option, the Inherited IRA is not subject to RMD. However, it must be fully distributed by December 31st of the fifth year following the year of the account owner’s death. There is no 10% early withdrawal penalty, and distributions are subject to tax. Again, this option is only available to Traditional accounts.
Investing with a Self-Directed Inherited IRA
Yes, you can self-direct your Inherited IRA (aka, beneficiary IRA). Before you do, make sure you understand the amount of funds you’ll need to take as an RMD, and that you will have available cash in the account to cover those RMDs. As I described above, assume you are 50 and inherited a Inherited IRA for $100,000. You will need to take annual distributions of around $3,000. So, if you invest all of the $100,000 into an illiquid asset, then you will be unable to take RMDs and you will force the IRA account to pay stiff penalties. Consequently, when making a self-directed investment from a Inherited IRA, you must take into account the amount of the investment, the total value of the account, and the timeline of the investment (when will it generate cash back to the IRA). If you inherited the $100,000 account above, you may decide to only invest $70,000 of the Inherited IRA into an illiquid investment (e.g. real estate or private company), while leaving the other $30,000 to be invested into liquid investments like publicly-traded stocks, CDs, cash or mutual funds. This will leave funds available for RMD until such time as the illiquid investment generates income or is sold for profit.
Stretching out the benefits of an inherited IRA can be powerful, but make sure you plan for RMDs before you make any self-directed investments from your Inherited IRA.
Self-directed Inherited IRA accounts can be set-up at Directed IRA in as little as five minutes on-line at www.directedira.com.
Every Roth IRA account owner knows that the main benefit of the Roth IRA is that there are no taxes due on withdrawals taken after the account owner is 59 ½. However, what taxes or penalties apply to distributions taken before the Roth IRA owner reaches 59 ½?
Roth IRA distributions before age 59 ½ are broken into two categories, contributions and earnings.
Contributions Can Be Withdrawn Before 59 ½ Without Tax or Penalty
The first first category is Roth IRA contributions. This category is distinct because these amounts have been subject to tax before the funds were included in the Roth IRA. The amounts withdrawn from a Roth IRA that do not exceed the amounts of Roth IRA contributions are not subject to taxes or penalties upon early distribution from the Roth IRA. However, any amounts distributed in excess of the Roth IRA contributions, which would typically be the investment returns, are subject to taxes and the early withdrawal penalty of 10%.
This is an excellent perk as it allows Roth IRA owners to take money back that they contributed to the Roth IRA without worrying about penalties or taxes.
Earnings Are Subject to Tax the 10% Early Withdrawal Penalty
Amounts withdrawn before 59 ½ that comprise the Roth IRA’s earnings are subject to tax and a 10% early withdrawal penalty. IRC § 408A(d)(2)(A) & Treasury Reg. §1.408A-6, Q&A-1(b). “Earnings” is the amount over the sums you have contributed to the Roth IRA, and is essentially your investment returns and gains.
Since there are taxes AND penalties on the earnings, you should only take distributions when absolutely necessary.
Example of Roth IRA Distribution Before 59 ½
For example, let’s say a Roth IRA owner is 45 and has a Roth IRA with $65,000. This balance consists of $35,000 in Roth IRA contributions and $30,000 in earnings or investment returns. If the Roth IRA owner took a distribution of the entire account then $35,000 would NOT be subject to early withdrawal penalties as this amount comprised Roth IRA contributions where taxes have been paid already. However, the remaining $30,000 distributed represents investment returns/gains made in the Roth IRA and would be subject to early withdrawal penalties of 10% and must be also be included in the taxable income of the Roth IRA owner. As a result, Roth IRA owners under age 59 ½ should avoid distributions of their Roth IRA in excess of their contributions.
Roth IRAs can be established and funded for high-income earners by using what is known as the “back door” Roth IRA contribution method. Many high-income earners believe that they can’t contribute to a Roth IRA because they make too much money and/or because they participate in a company 401(k) plan. Fortunately, this isn’t true.
While direct contributions to a Roth IRA are limited to taxpayers with income in excess of $120,000 ($189,000 for married taxpayers), those whose income exceeds these amounts may make annual contributions to a non-deductible Traditional IRA and then convert those amounts over to a Roth IRA. Our IRA company – Directed IRA – can help those who want a self-directed “back door” Roth IRA, but the strategy can be done with almost anyone who wants a Roth IRA.
Here’s a few examples of earners who can establish and fund a Roth IRA:
- “I’m a high-income earner and work for a company who offers a company 401(k) plan. I contribute the maximum amount to that plan each year. Can I establish and fund a Roth IRA?” Yes, even though you are high-income, and even though you participate in a company 401(k) plan, you can establish and fund a Roth IRA. You just have to use the “back door” method.
- “I’m self-employed and earn over $200,000 a year; can I have a Roth IRA? Isn’t my income too high?” Yes, you can contribute to a Roth IRA despite having income that exceeds the Roth IRA income contribution limits of $189,000 for married taxpayers and $120,000 for single taxpayers. You just have to use the “back door” method.
The strategy used by high-income earners to make Roth IRA contributions involves the deposit of non-deductible contributions to a Traditional IRA, and then converting those funds in the non-deductible Traditional IRA to a Roth IRA. This is often times referred to as a “back door” Roth IRA. In the end, you don’t get a tax deduction on the amounts contributed, but the funds are held in a Roth IRA and are tax-free upon retirement (just like a Roth IRA). Here’s how it works:
Step 1: Fund a new non-deductible Traditional IRA.
This IRA is “non-deductible” because high-income earners who participate in a company retirement plan (or who has a spouse who does) can’t also make “deductible” contributions to an IRA. However, the account can be funded by non-deductible amounts up to the IRA annual contribution amounts of $5,500 for 2018 ($6,000 for 2019 and forward). The non-deductible contributions mean you don’t get a tax deduction on the amounts contributed to the Traditional IRA. Don’t worry about having non-deductible contributions though, as you’re converting to a Roth IRA, so you don’t want a deduction for the funds contributed. If you did get a deduction for the contribution, you’d have to pay taxes on the amounts later converted to Roth. You’ll need to file IRS form 8606 for the tax year in which you made the non-deductible IRA contributions. The form can be found here.
If you’re a high-income earner and you don’t have a company-based retirement plan (or a spouse with one), then you simply establish a standard deductible Traditional IRA, as there is no high-income contribution limit on Traditional IRAs when you don’t participate in a company plan.
Step 2: Convert the non-deductible Traditional IRA funds to a Roth IRA.
In 2010, the limitations on Roth IRA conversions, which previously restricted Roth IRA conversions for high-income earners, was removed. As a result, all taxpayers are able to covert traditional IRA funds to Roth IRAs since 2010. It was in 2010 that this “back door” Roth IRA contribution strategy was first utilized as it relied on the ability to convert funds from Traditional to Roth. It has been used by tens of thousands of Americans since.
If you have other existing Traditional IRAs, then the tax treatment of your conversion to Roth becomes a little more complicated as you must take into account those existing IRA funds when undertaking a conversion (including SEP and SIMPLE IRAs). If the only IRA you have is the non-deductible IRA, then the conversion is easy because you convert the entire non-deductible IRA amount over to Roth with no tax on the conversion. Remember, you didn’t get a deduction into the non-deductible Traditional IRA so there is not tax to apply on conversions. On the other hand, if you have an existing IRA with $95,000, and you have $5,000 in non-deductible Traditional IRA contributions in another account that you wish to convert to Roth, then the IRS requires you to convert your IRA funds in equal parts deductible (the $95K bucket) and non-deductible amounts (the new $5k) based on the money you have in all Traditional IRAs. So, if you wanted to convert $10,000, then you’d have to convert $9,500 (95%) of your deductible bucket, which portion of conversion is subject to tax, and $500 of you non-deductible bucket, which isn’t subject to tax upon once converted. Consequently, the “back door” Roth IRA isn’t well suited when you have existing Traditional IRAs that contain deductible contributions and earnings from those sums.
There are two workarounds to this Roth IRA conversion problem, and both revolve around moving the existing Traditional IRA funds into a 401(k) or other employer-based plan as employer plan funds are not considered when determining what portions of the Traditional IRAs are subject to tax on conversion (the deductible and the non-deductible). If you participate in an existing company 401(k) plan, then you may rollover your Traditional IRA funds into that 401(k) plan. Most 401(k) plans allow for this rollover from IRA to 401(k), so long as you are still employed by that company. If you are self-employed, you may establish a Solo or owner-only 401(k) plan, and rollover your Traditional IRA into this 401(k). In the end though, if you can’t roll out existing Traditional IRA funds into a 401(k), then the “back door” Roth IRA is going to cause some tax repercussions, as you also have to convert a portion of the existing Traditional IRA funds, which will cause taxes upon conversion. Taxes on conversion aren’t “the end of the world” though, as all of the money that comes out of that Traditional IRA would be subject to tax at some point in time. The only issue is it causes a big tax bill, so plan carefully.
The bottom line is that Roth IRAs can be established and funded by high-income earners. Don’t consider yourself “left out” on one of the greatest tax strategies offered to Americans: The Roth IRA.
You have a number of options and decisions to make when moving funds from a retirement account (401(k), 403(b), IRA) to an IRA. And you’ve got to be careful because sometimes checking the wrong box on your transfer, rollover, and withdrawal forms can have drastic tax consequences. For example, should you move funds from one retirement account to your IRA using a Direct Rollover, a 60-Day Rollover, or a Trustee-to-Trustee transfer? Which box do you check on your form and does a 1099-R get issued and reported to the IRS? Will I have to report anything on my tax return? Let’s go over the options and the consequences as well as the tax reporting for each one.
1. Direct Rollover from 401(k) to IRA – When Moving from an Employer Plan
A Direct Rollover is generally used when moving funds from an employer plan (e.g. former employer 401(k) or 403(b)) to an IRA). Under a direct rollover, the retirement plan administrator will send the retirement plan funds directly to the new custodian of your IRA. There is no tax consequence and there is no withholding. There is simply a “direct” rollover of the funds to the new IRA account. Most employer plans like 401(k)s and 403(b)s are traditional accounts, so those funds are generally rolled to a traditional IRA. If you are moving the funds to a Roth IRA, which is possible, you will need to covert the funds with the IRA custodian as they are being rolled into a Roth IRA. And of course, there are taxes due from the Roth conversion.
There are no limits on the number of Direct Rollovers you may complete, except as may be reasonably imposed by your employer’s retirement plan. For example, some employer plans may say that it’s an all or nothing option if you want to move funds once you no longer work there (e.g. keep all your funds there or move everything to an IRA).
If you are currently employed with your employer, you are usually only allowed to move funds from the employer’s plan when you have reached retirement plan age under the plan. This is usually 55 or 59 1/2 depending on your employer’s plan.
A direct rollover from an employer plan is not subject to tax or withholding. When a direct rollover is completed, a 1099 is generally issued from the current plan, but is marked as “not taxable” as the funds are being sent to another qualifying retirement account.
2. 60-Day Rollover – Only When You Need It This Way
A 60-Day Rollover allows you to take a distribution from one IRA, so long as you re-deposit that same amount into another IRA within 60 days, and the funds no longer considered distributed. When using a 60-Day Rollover, you receive the funds personally from the current IRA plan custodian, and then re-deposit those funds into a qualifying IRA within 60 days. Failure to re-deposit in time will cause a distribution of the funds, and you will be subject to taxes on any applicable penalties (e.g. early withdrawal penalty if under 59 1/2) for failure to re-deposit in time. There are no extensions, and there is no mercy if you miss the 60-day deadline. The new IRA custodian will generally require a certification, and your prior IRA account custodian’s statement to verify that the funds were in an IRA within the past 60 days.
It is very important to note that as of 2013 you can only complete one 60-Day Rollover every twelve months. See my prior article here on the 12-month rule for 60-Day Rollovers. Consequently, you should not use the 60-Day Rollover method option on a regular basis.
When using a 60-Day Rollover, the former IRA custodian will issue a 1099-R reporting the distribution as taxable and you will need to certify that you re-deposited within 60 days on your personal tax return to avoid the distribution. The 60-Day Rollover is communicated to the IRS on your personal tax return on line 15 where you report the distribution from the 1099-R, and then on line 15b you report that it was not taxable, since it was rolled over within 60 days. On line 15b, you indicate that the taxable amount is zero and you write the word Rollover next to line 15b. See the IRS instructions for line 15 here.
3. Trustee-to-Trustee Transfer – the Best Option When Changing IRA Custodians
The Trustee-to-Trustee transfer is the preferred method of moving funds from one IRA to another (e.g. from a Roth IRA at Fidelity to a Roth IRA with a self-directed custodian). Under a Trustee-to-Trustee transfer, the funds are sent from one IRA custodian (partial or full account) to your new IRA custodian. There is no tax, withholding, or penalty for moving funds via a Trustee-to-Trustee transfer, and there is no limit on the amount of Trustee-to-Trustee transfers you may complete.
A 1099-R is not issued when a Trustee-to-Trustee transfer occurs, and there is no withholding or tax due. Consequently, the Trustee-to-Trustee transfer is the preferred method to use when moving funds from one IRA to another.